arab conquest of constantinople

[1][2][3] Mu'awiya also spearheaded the development of a Muslim navy, which within a few years grew sufficiently strong to occupy Cyprus and raid as far as Kos, Rhodes and Crete in the Aegean Sea. [67], Coordinates: 41°00′44″N 28°58′34″E / 41.0122°N 28.9760°E / 41.0122; 28.9760, Major conflict of the Arab–Byzantine Wars, Opening moves: the campaigns of 672 and 673, Arab attacks and related expeditions in 674–678, "East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E. [40] Conversely, Byzantine prestige reached new heights, especially in the West: Constantine IV received envoys from the Avars and the Balkan Slavs, bearing gifts and congratulations and acknowledging Byzantine supremacy. "After the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, Rome became the 'Red Apple,' the ultimate objective of the Muslim Ottomans and the symbol of the triumph of Islam over Christianity. [26] The subsequent peace also gave a much-needed respite from constant raiding to Asia Minor, and allowed the Byzantine state to recover its balance and consolidate itself following the cataclysmic changes of the previous decades. These walls had never been breached in the thousand years since their construction. When most of Constantinople was secure, Mehmed himself rode through the streets of the city to the great cathedral of Hagia Sophia, the largest in all of Christendom, and converted it into the mosque Ayasofya. On its way back to Syria, the Arab fleet was almost annihilated in a storm off Syllaion. There, […] In the meantime, Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaeologus entreated major powers in Christendom to aid him in the impending siege. A small group reached the top of a tower through another gate but were nearly eliminated by the defenders until Giustiniani was mortally wounded by Ottoman gunfire while on the ramparts. When combined with a large metal chain that had been drawn across the Golden Horn, Constantine was confident that the city’s defenses could repel a naval assault and withstand Mehmed’s land forces until relief came from Christian Europe. Mu'a… Thus the capture of an island named Arwad "in the sea of Kustantiniyya" is recorded for 673/674, although it is unclear if this refers to the Sea of Marmara or the Aegean, and Yazid's 676 expedition is also said to have reached Constantinople. Furthermore, with Constantinople having suffered through several devastating sieges, the city’s population had dropped from roughly 400,000 in the 12th century to between 40,000 and 50,000 by the 1450s. Now devoid of both a long-standing buffer against the Ottomans and access to the Black Sea, Christian kingdoms relied on Hungary to halt any further westward expansion. [58] They record that the large, well-fortified capital city of Fu lin (拂菻, i.e. Following the disastrous Battle of Yarmouk in 636, the Byzantine Empire withdrew the bulk of its remaining forces from the Levant into Asia Minor, which was shielded from the Muslim expansion by the Taurus Mountains. Many churches were left dilapidated and there was severe economic hardship with a small population. Mehmed was 21 years old at the time, and Istanbul has remained in Muslim hands ever since. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. These were drawn out until 679, giving the Arabs time for a last raid into Asia Minor under 'Amr ibn Murra, perhaps intended to put pressure on the Byzantines. This land was conquered in the year 857 A.H (1453), about 565 years ago, and to Constantine's armament included siphon-bearing ships intended for the deployment of a newly developed incendiary substance, Greek fire. [34][15][35], At the same time, the preoccupation with the Arab threat had reduced Byzantium's ability to respond to threats elsewhere: in Italy, the Lombards used the opportunity to conquer most of Calabria, including Tarentum and Brundisium, while in the Balkans, a coalition of Slavic tribes attacked the city of Thessalonica and launched seaborne raids in the Aegean, even penetrating into the Sea of Marmara. Following the disastrous Battle of Yarmouk in 636, the Byzantine Empire withdrew the bulk of its remaining forces from the Levant into Asia Minor, which was shielded from the Muslim expansion by the Taurus Mountains. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Constantinople was a constant source of irritation to the Ottomans. In contrast to Yazid's expedition, Mu'awiya intended to take a coastal route to Constantinople. No … These defeats forced the Arabs to abandon the siege in 678. Upon hearing of his navy’s defeat, Mehmed stripped Baltaoğlu of his rank and arranged for his replacement. Sultan Mehmed II transformed Hagia Sophia into an mosque, and the few partisans of the union fled to Italy.…, The fall of Constantinople in 1453 provided humanism with a major boost, for many eastern scholars fled to Italy, bringing with them important books and manuscripts and a tradition of Greek scholarship.…, …the enterprise and during the siege of Constantinople (April 6–May 29, 1453), the opposing views were voiced in two war councils convened at critical moments. He was carried to the rear, and his absence sowed confusion and lowered morale among the ranks. An adjoining sea wall ran along the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara, the latter section being 20 feet (6 metres) high and 5 miles (8 km) long. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. This allowed the sultan to send in another Janissary regiment and take the inner wall at the Gate of St. Romanus. Mehmet the conquerer's conquest of Constantinople. [36][37], Finally, in autumn 677 or early 678 Constantine IV resolved to confront the Arab besiegers in a head-on engagement. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Conquest of Constantinople 1453 - Istanbul. Mehmed was determined to take the Golden Horn and pressure the Byzantines into submission. They used the peninsula of Cyzicus near the city as a base to spend the winter, and returned every spring to launch attacks against the city's fortifications. Theodosius' poem commemorates a decisive naval victory before the walls of the city—with the interesting detail that the Arab fleet too possessed fire-throwing ships—and makes a reference to "the fear of their returning shadows", which may be interpreted as confirming the recurring Arab attacks each spring from their base in Cyzicus. Baltaoğlu Süleyman Bey commanded a fleet stationed at Diplokionion with an estimated 31 large and midsize warships alongside nearly 100 smaller boats and transports. The preparations for this conquest started at the time of the khalifah … The dwindling Byzantine Empire came to an end when the Ottomans breached Constantinople’s ancient land wall after besieging the city for 55 days. Its garrison of 12,000 men was regularly rotated back to Syria, a small fleet was attached to it for defence and raiding, and the Arabs even sowed wheat and brought along animals to graze on the island. It became a tradition that Ottoman sultans were girt with the Sword of Osman at the Eyüp mosque upon their accession. Emperor Constantine XI named Giustiniani commander of his land defenses and spent the rest of the winter strengthening the city for a siege. The Ottoman besiegers vastly outnumbered the Byzantines and their allies. The Eastern Roman Empire was under constant Ottoman pressure ever since the new conquerors appeared in the Anatolia. The conquest of Istanbul [Constantinople] and the conversion of the Hagia Sophia [Greek for "Holy Wisdom"] into a mosque are among the most glorious chapters of Turkish history. With the siege of Istanbul , the Ottomans proceeded to establish hegemony over numerous independent Turkish states (Beylik) within Anatolia . [31][32][33] Thus from the Arab sources it is only known that Abdallah ibn Qays and Fadhala ibn 'Ubayd raided Crete and wintered there in 675, while in the same year Malik ibn Abdallah led a raid into Asia Minor. [26][32][36][33], The essential outline of Theophanes' account may be corroborated by the only near-contemporary Byzantine reference to the siege, a celebratory poem by the otherwise unknown Theodosius Grammaticus, which was earlier believed to refer to the second Arab siege of 717–718. This can be reconciled either by including the opening campaigns of 672–673, or by counting the years until the final withdrawal of the Arab troops from their forward bases, in 680. Unlike the latter, which, from a Muslim point of view, was first and foremost a campaign dedicated to rapine and plunder, not conquest — evinced by the fact that, after the initial battle, the Muslims fled — the siege of Constantinople was devoted to a longtime goal, had the full backing of the caliphate, and consisted of far greater manpower. On May 29, 1453, [Ottoman] Sultan Muhammad II entered the city after … The Ottoman cannon created several breaches, but most were too narrow to send troops through. In 716, after years of preparations, the Arabs, led by Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik, invaded Byzantine Asia Minor. Today it remains one of the holiest Muslim shrines in Istanbul. This was the first time the Arabs tried to hold a captured fortress in the interior of Asia Minor beyond the campaigning season, and probably meant that the Arabs intended to return next year and use the town as their base, but Amorium was retaken by the Byzantines during the subsequent winter. Constantinople had also been weakened economically. [24][15] Throughout this period, overland raids into Asia Minor continued, and the Arab troops wintered on Byzantine soil. In 659, Mu'awiya even concluded a truce with Byzantium, including payment of tribute to the Empire. Howard-Johnston asserts that no siege actually took place, based not only on its absence in the eastern sources, but also on the logistical impossibility of such an undertaking for the duration reported. Several important personalities of early Islam are mentioned as taking part, such as Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar and Ibn al-Zubayr. The Second Arab Siege of Constantinople in 717–718 was a combined land and sea offensive by the Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate against the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople. He hoped to breach them or otherwise force a surrender before a Christian relief force could arrive. Muhammad ibn Abdallah's fleet wintered at Smyrna, a fleet under a certain Qays (perhaps Abdallah ibn Qais) wintered in Lycia and Cilicia, and a third fleet, under Khalid, joined them later. Eyewitness Jacopo Tedaldi estimates a presence of 30,000 to 35,000 armed civilians and only 6,000 to 7,000 trained soldiers. An army consisting of the best (soldiers) of the people of the earth at that time will come from Medina (to counteract them). The country was governed by the East Roman civil service and military, both of which were filled by the Greek-speaking ruling class to the general exclusion of the native Coptic-speaking Egyptians. Hungary refused to assist, and, instead of sending men, Pope Nicholas V saw the precarious situation as an opportunity to push for the reunification of the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, a priority of the papacy since 1054. Crusades - Crusades - From Constantinople to Antioch: Late in May 1097 the Crusaders and a contingent of Byzantine soldiers reached the capital of the Turkish sultanate, Nicaea (now İznik, Turkey), which surrendered to the Byzantines on June 19. [58] In these Chinese sources, Fu lin was directly related to the earlier Daqin,[58] which is now considered by modern sinologists as the Roman Empire. [26][27][15][28] In fact, the "siege" of Constantinople was a series of engagements around the city, which may even be stretched to include Yazid's 669 attack. Nevertheless, just as deeply entrenched was the understanding that Byzantine control of Constantinople was a necessary bastion against Muslim control of land and sea in the eastern Mediterranean. The desert tribesmen of Arabia form the bulk of the Muslim armies. In the 15th century, Constantinople’s walls were widely recognized as the most formidable in all of Europe. Mehmed’s strategy was straightforward: he would use his fleet and siege lines to blockade Constantinople on all sides while relentlessly battering the walls of the city with cannon. [66], On the other hand, the historian Marek Jankowiak argues that a major Arab siege did occur but that Theophanes (writing about 140 years after the events, based on an anonymous source itself written about 50 years after the events) misdated and garbled the events, and that the proper dating of the siege should be 667–669, with spring 668 for the major attack. Immense resources were poured into the undertaking, including the creation of a huge fleet. Muslim incursions intensified, leading to a second Arab attempt at conquering Constantinople in 717–718, which also proved unsuccessful. Two attempts to rush the Gate of St. Romanus and the Blachernae walls were met with fierce resistance, and the Ottoman soldiers were forced to fall back. The Arab conquests: 7th century: One of the most dramatic and sudden movements of any people in history is the expansion, by conquest, of the Arabs in the 7th century (only the example of the Mongols in the 13th century can match it). [59][60] Henry Yule remarked with some surprise the accuracy of the account in Chinese sources, which even named the negotiator of the peace settlement as "Yenyo", or Ioannes Pitzigaudes, the unnamed envoy sent to Damascus in Edward Gibbon's account in which he mentions an augmentation of tributary payments a few years later due to the Umayyads facing some financial troubles. As long as it remains (a museum) it means the crusaders' occupation remains." Login with Gmail. Fall of Constantinople, (May 29, 1453), conquest of Constantinople by Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire. [38], Constantinople was the nerve centre of the Byzantine state. [61], The narrative of the siege accepted by modern historians relies largely on Theophanes' account, while the Arab and Syriac sources do not mention any siege, but rather individual campaigns, only a few of which reached as far as Constantinople. On April 6 the Ottomans began their artillery barrage and brought down a section of the wall. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. After pausing to reposition his cannon, Mehmed reopened fire and thereafter maintained daily bombardment. Although it had lost all of its territories, the city still commanded great respect as the seat of the Byzantine Empire. According to the report of Theophanes, the Emperor Constantine IV (r. 661–685), upon learning of the Arab fleets' approach, began equipping his own fleet for war. Preparation for the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul today) started in 1452. [10][11][12] In 668, the Arabs sent aid to Saborios, strategos of the Armeniac Theme, who had rebelled and proclaimed himself emperor. Although the sultan attempted to prevent a total sack of the city, he permitted an initial period of looting that saw the destruction of many Orthodox churches. [44][45] Following the conclusion of peace, he moved against the mounting Bulgar menace in the Balkans, but his huge army, comprising all the available forces of the Empire, was decisively beaten, opening the way for the establishment of a Bulgar state in the northeastern Balkans. Mehmed repopulated the city with people from a multitude of backgrounds and faiths and relocated his capital from Edirne to Constantinople, ensuring a multicultural seat of power for a multicultural empire. [14][15] Given the lack of any mention of such an assault in Byzantine sources, it is most probable that the Arab chroniclers—taking account of Yazid's presence and the fact that Chalcedon is a suburb of Constantinople—"upgraded" the attack on Chalcedon to an attack on the Byzantine capital itself. [7], The peace lasted until the end of the Muslim civil war in 661, from which Mu'awiya and his clan emerged victorious, establishing the Umayyad Caliphate. However, he returned to power two years later after defeating the Christians and remained sultan until his death in 1451. Baltaoğlu Süleyman Bey commanded a fleet stationed at Diplokionion with an estimated 31 large and midsize warships alongside nearly smaller., to Fadhala 's aid a fraction of the winter strengthening the city 's fall also stood as turning! ] they record that the death of admiral Yazid Ibn Shagara, by. Leading to a second Arab attempt at conquering Constantinople in 717–718, which they captured and converted a... 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