, Although the fossil record is poor, several extinct genera have been assigned to the clade Physeteroidea, which includes the last common ancestor of the modern sperm whale, pygmy sperm whales, dwarf sperm whales, and extinct physeteroids. , Genetic analysis indicates that the world population of sperm whales originated in the Pacific Ocean from a population of about 10,000 animals around 100,000 years ago, when expanding ice caps blocked off their access to other seas.  This gives rise to a distinctive bushy, forward-angled spray.  Bulls have beached themselves together, suggesting a degree of cooperation which is not yet fully understood. ", "Sperm whale sound production studied with ultrasound time/depth-recording tags", "Mornington Peninsula Biodiversity: Survey and Research Highlights", "Unexpected changes in the oxic/anoxic interface in the Black Sea", First live sperm whales sighted in Pakistani waters: WWF (VIDEO), Sperm whales and blue whales sighted by fishermen off the coast of Pakistan, 전남 신안군 우의도, 길이 16m 무게 40톤 초대형 고래 죽은채 발견[김양훈, "エコツアー風景 -イルカ・クジラ・ネイチャー ウォッチングセンター：静岡県伊東市城ヶ崎 富戸港 - 光海丸で行く、本当の大自然との、"ふれあい"。- ドルフィンウォッチング、エコツーリスト、エコツーリズム KOHKAIMARU 石井泉 光海丸", "相模湾でマッコウクジラに遭遇 Sperm Whale Encounter in Japan", "RYUKYU Islands - くじらガイドがお届けするクジラ・シャチ・イルカ・自然・エコツアー情報", PLOS ONE: Spatial and Seasonal Distribution of American Whaling and Whales in the Age of Sail, "BBC News - Sperm whales sighting off north-west Scotland 'extraordinary, "Something killed a lot of sperm whales in the past—and it wasn't whalers", "FLMNH Ichthyology Department: Megamouth", "Diet and mitochondrial DNA haplotype of a sperm whale (, "Iron defecation by sperm whales stimulates carbon export in the Southern Ocean", "Killer whale predation on sperm whales: Observations and implications", No Danger in Sight? A piece of the posterior wall of the frontal sac.  An individual measuring 20.7 metres (68 ft) was reported from a Soviet whaling fleet near the Kuril Islands in 1950 and is cited by some authors as the largest accurately measured.  Alternatively, they may face outwards (the 'heads-out formation').  On returning to Nantucket in the summer 1744 on a subsequent voyage, he noted that "45 spermacetes are brought in here this day," another indication that American sperm whaling was in full swing. Sound waves that strike the whale from different directions will not be channeled in the same way. "In my experiences on whale watches and discussing whales with people, it is a very common association," says Stewart, "especially after the movie 'In the Heart of the Sea' came …  The circulatory system has a number of specific adaptations for the aquatic environment. A sperm whale's click is almost over before it starts. There are unique, coastal groups reported from various areas among the globe such as Scotland, and Shiretoko Peninsula, off Kaikoura, in the Davao Gulf. A sperm whale’s echolocation clicks are some of the loudest sounds any animal can make. Such a click would strobe prey with 2,500 Watts per square metre.  Most of what is known about deep-sea squid has been learned from specimens in captured sperm whale stomachs, although more recent studies analysed faeces. And, sound travels differently underwater than it does through air, which means those 200+ decibel clicks are far more amplified than they would be on land. , A coda is a short pattern of 3 to 20 clicks that is used in social situations. Whale sounds are used by whales for different kinds of communication.  During the hunt, oxygen consumption, together with blood vessel dilation, produces heat and melts the spermaceti, increasing its buoyancy and enabling easy surfacing. , Sperm whales are among the most cosmopolitan species. But strike a member of the harem school, and her companions swim around her with every token of concern, sometimes lingering so near her and so long, as themselves to fall a prey.  Some prey may be taken accidentally while eating other items. , These analyses also confirm that there was a rapid evolutionary radiation (diversification) of the Physeteroidea in the Miocene period. It is the sole extant species of its genus, Physeter, in the family Physeteridae. Such coastal groups were more abundant in pre-whaling days. , When sperm whales socialize, they emit complex patterns of clicks called codas. The bulldog bat can project sound beams with core pulse intensities only twenty five hundred times less powerful than those of the sperm whale.  Mature males often show scars which seem to be caused by the teeth. [What does being anoxic have to do with whales that don't breath under water?  The fearsome reputation perpetuated by Melville was based on bull whales' ability to fiercely defend themselves from attacks by early whalers, smashing whaling boats and, occasionally, attacking and destroying whaling ships.  A sperm whale killed 160 km (100 mi) south of Durban, South Africa, after a 1-hour, 50-minute dive was found with two dogfish (Scymnodon sp. Fossil sperm whales from the Middle Miocene include Aulophyseter, Idiorophus and Orycterocetus, all of which were found on the West Coast of the United States, and Scaldicetus, found in Europe and Japan. Sperm whales make the loudest sounds of any animal. It is listed on Appendix I as this species has been categorized as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant proportion of their range and CMS Parties strive towards strictly protecting these animals, conserving or restoring the places where they live, mitigating obstacles to migration and controlling other factors that might endanger them.  They feed on several species, notably the giant squid, but also the colossal squid, octopuses, and fish such as demersal rays, but their diet is mainly medium-sized squid. Like other toothed whales, the sperm whale can retract and protrude its eyes, thanks to a 2-cm-thick retractor muscle attached around the eye at the equator, but are unable to roll the eyes in their sockets.. Until 1974, the species was generally known as P. catodon. They prefer ice-free waters over 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) deep. James Nestor, an avid ocean-goer and author, claimed in a recent presentation that a fellow diver was swimming alongside a pod of sperm whales when one approached him out of curiosity. The choroid is very thick and contains a fibrous tapetum lucidum. Sperm whales are among the most cosmopolitan species. Sperm whale vocalizations include directional clicks, from less than 100 Hz to 30 kHz.The majority of energy in these clicks is in the 5 to 25 kHz range. This is called echolocation. The voices of marine mammals of the Mediterranean Sea. The second chamber is larger and is where digestion takes place. The sperm whale was designated as the Connecticut state animal by the General Assembly in 1975. "Fatal ingestion of floating net debris by two sperm whales (, Society for Marine Mammalogy Sperm Whale Fact Sheet, US National Marine Fisheries Service Sperm Whale web page, "Physty"-stranded sperm whale nursed back to health and released in 1981, Convention on Migratory Species page on the sperm whale, Website of the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region, Official website of the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area, Retroposon analysis of major cetacean lineages: The monophyly of toothed whales and the paraphyly of river dolphins, Voices in the Sea - sounds of the sperm whale, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sperm_whale&oldid=991320204, Articles with dead external links from January 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Occitan (post 1500)-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. By analyzing click after click after click, the scientists found that to make a click at depths of 500 meters (1,640 feet), the whales may use as little as 50 microliters of air — the volume of a drop of water. According to Fristrup and Harbison (2002),  The Kogiidae (dwarf and pygmy sperm whales) diverged from the Physeteridae (true sperm whales) at least 8 million years ago..  The oldest pregnant female ever recorded was 41 years old. 13 December 1992. They conjectured that sperm whales use vision to hunt squid, either by detecting silhouettes from below or by detecting bioluminescence. The culture of sperm whales , The sperm whale is among the most sexually dimorphic of all cetaceans.  The genome of live whales can be examined by recovering shed skin. Like walrus ivory, sperm whale ivory has two distinct layers. , Currently, entanglement in fishing nets and collisions with ships represent the greatest threats to the sperm whale population. It is suggested that the whales can see the squid silhouetted above them against the dim surface light. , Sperm whales usually dive between 300 to 800 metres (980 to 2,620 ft), and sometimes 1 to 2 kilometres (3,300 to 6,600 ft), in search of food.  Such dives can last more than an hour. Herman Melville", "What is a Whale? Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick is based on a true story about a sperm whale that attacked and sank the whaleship Essex. To obtain measures of the properties of sperm whale clicks beyond waveform and repetition rates is not a trivial matter.  The species is listed as endangered on the United States Endangered Species Act.. The killer whales employed a tail outward and tail-slapping defensive position against the bull sperm whale similar to that used by female sperm whales against attacking killer whales.  The largest sperm whale weighed in piecemeal was 18.1 metres (59 ft) long and weighed 57 tonnes (56 long tons; 63 short tons).  Sperm whaling was a major industry in the 19th century, depicted in the novel Moby-Dick. , The sperm whale brain is the largest known of any modern or extinct animal, weighing on average about 7.8 kilograms (17 lb) (with the smallest known weighing 6.4 kilograms (14 lb) and the largest known weighing 9.2 kilograms (20 lb)), more than five times heavier than a human's, and has a volume of about 8,000 cm3. The posterior wall of the frontal sac is covered with fluid–filled knobs, which are about 4–13 mm in diameter and separated by narrow grooves. Running through the head are two air passages.  Ferecetotherium, found in Azerbaijan and dated to the late Oligocene (about 28 to 23 million years ago), is the most primitive fossil that has been found, which possesses sperm whale-specific features, such as an asymmetric rostrum ("beak" or "snout"). A 5 metres (16 ft) long jawbone is held in the British Natural History Museum and a 4.7 metres (15 ft) long jawbone is held in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. The sperm whale's unique body is unlikely to be confused with any other species. Sperm whales are listed on Appendix I and Appendix II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). By contrast, the auditory system is enlarged. , When echolocating, the sperm whale emits a directionally focused beam of broadband clicks. Either the theory is not borne out or the data is not representative for the capabilities of the sound-generating mechanism. When Yukusam the 13-14 m lone male sperm whale swam through the Salish Sea last month, he was recorded on a suite of hydrophones including the Orcasound Lab live hydrophone in Haro Strait and simultaneously the Lime Kiln hydrophone 5 km away. , Below the spermaceti organ lies the "junk" which consists of compartments of spermaceti separated by cartilage. A sperm whale detects its prey by sending echolocation clicks from the front of its nose and listening for the echo, which reverberates in a fatty sac beneath its mouth.  The teeth are cone-shaped and weigh up to 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) each. The complex arterial retia mirabilia of the sperm whale are more extensive and larger than those of any other cetacean. , Fossil sperm whales differ from modern sperm whales in tooth count and the shape of the face and jaws. They can emit a click at around 230 decibels, considerably louder than a jet engine at around 150db.  Battles between sperm whales and giant squid or colossal squid have never been observed by humans; however, white scars are believed to be caused by the large squid. It is the largest among the toothed whales, weighing about 170 g. It is overall ellipsoid in shape, compressed along the visual axis, measuring about 7×7×3 cm. They mainly use sound to communicate, investigate their surroundings, and navigate the big blue. Long-line fishing operations in the Gulf of Alaska complain that sperm whales take advantage of their fishing operations to eat desirable species straight off the line, sparing the whales the need to hunt. Experimental studies attempting to duplicate this effect have been unable to replicate the supposed injuries, casting doubt on this idea.  The sperm whale has 18 to 26 teeth on each side of its lower jaw which fit into sockets in the upper jaw. It is dark blue-gray or brownish, with white patches on the belly.  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